This module provides a detailed overview on a fascinating new class of solid state materials and a fast growing research area: two-dimensional (2D) materials that are truly two-dimensional solids with a thickness of about 1 nm. Within a layer there is strong covalent bonding between atoms and weak van-der Waals coupling between adjacent layers. Nevertheless, the properties of 2D solids strongly depends on the number of layers and interaction with environment/substrate. Depending on the chemical compositions, those materials exhibit fascinating properties making them very promising for electronic, opto-electronic, spin- and valleytronics applications, but also for solar and (photo-)electrochemical energy conversion and for the realization of quantum technologies. In this lecture, the following aspects will be covered:
- Historical overview and introduction to the different classes of 2D materials
- Nanofabrication and preparation methods of 2D Materials
- Nanoanalytical methods to study 2D Materials including the visibility contrast and microscopy methods, spectroscopic ellipsometry to access the light matter interaction and Raman spectroscopy to unravel the phonon fingerprint
- Applications of 2D Materials in advanced functional devices such as transistors, photo-detectors, solar cells, (photo-)catalyst and quantum light sources
- Focus topics to introduce peculiar properties of selected materials in more detail:
- Relativistic charge carriers and the Quantum Hall effect in graphene and its role for the new systems of units;
- Topological insulators;
- Excitons and doping induced superconductivity in transition metal dichalcogenides;
After a successful participation of the module, the student is able to:
- Understand different classes of 2D solid state materials and to apply the classification scheme of further 2D solid state materials.
- Understand the preparation and nanofabrication methods for 2D materials and to evaluate suitable methodologies for novel materials.
- Understand optical and structural characterization methods for 2D materials, to analyze related results in recent literature and to apply suitable methodologies for given problems related to 2D material.
- Evaluate the Raman spectra from selected 2D materials.
- Remember magnetotransport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect in graphene and transport in topological protected surface states.
- Evaluate absorption, excitonic and spin properties of transition metal dichalcogenides;
Understand and discuss applications of 2D materials and their heterostructures for electronic, optoelectronic, spintronics devices and solar energy conversion